Present tenses

present-tense1
Present tense is used to express actions that occur in the present.
These are the English present tenses:
Present Simple („I choose“)
Present Perfect („I have chosen“)
Present Continuous („I am choosing“)
Present Perfect Continuous („I have been choosing“)

Present Simple
Basic form
Subject + Verb (present form)
Examples

John lives in New York.
We play football every day.
You are really kind.
The meeting starts at 3 PM.

The Present Simple is the most basic tense in the English language. It is an interesting tense because it can be used to express the future. Generally, though, we use it to describe the present activities or to talk about routines or habits.
Use

Facts, generalizations and universal truths
Habits and routines
Permanent situations
Events that are certain to happen
Arrangements that we can’t change (e.g. timetables, official meetings)
State verbs (e.g. be, have, suppose, know)
Narrations, instructions or commentaries
Note
Apart from the above uses, this tense is also used in:
Zero Conditional („If it doesn’t rains, I go play football.“)
First Conditional („We won’t get our pocket money, if we don’t pass this exam.“)
In sentences after when, before, till, after, as soon as („Before you leave, please take the keys.“)
Use 1: Facts, Generalizations and Univeral Truths

We use the Present Simple to talk about universal truths (for example, laws of nature) or things we believe are, or are not, true. It’s also used to generalize about something or somebody.
Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius. Universal Truth
It is a big house. Fact
The Earth goes around the Sun. Universal Truth, Fact
Dogs are better than cats. Generalization
Berlin is the capital city of Germany. Fact
The Elephant doesn’t fly. Fact
London is the capital city of France. Fact (Remember: the sentence does not have to be true)

Use 2: Habits and Routines

We also use this tense to describe actions that happen frequently. For example: habits, routines, tendencies.
We leave for work at 7:30 AM every morning. Routine
My husband watches the TV in the evening. Habit, Routine
Susan often meets with her friends after school. Habit, Routine
They usually play football on Sunday. Habit, Routine
Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother. Tendency
Pinocchio usually tells lies. Tendency

Adverbs of Frequency
The Present Simple is often used with the frequency adverbs:
always
frequently/often
usually
seldom/rarely
nowadays
never
every week/year
sometimes/occasionally
from time to time
every now and then
A few examples how to use them in sentences:
I always go to church on Sundays.
I never eat anything after 10 PM.

Use 3: Pernament Situations

Use the Present Simple to talk about situations in life that last a relatively long time.
I live in Boston
He works as a fireman.
Margaret drives a Volkswagen.
Jerry doesn’t teach maths at highschool.

Use 4: Events Certain to Happen

Use the Present Simple when an event is certain to happen in the future.
My grandmother turns 100 this July.
Winter starts on December 21.

Use 5: State Verbs

You should use the Present Simple with state verbs.
I like swimming.
We know this man.

Use 6: Future Arrangements

Use the Present Simple to talk about events that we can’t change (for example, an official meeting or a train departure).
The meeting starts at 4 PM.
The train leaves at the noon.
When does the plane take off?
Jerry doesn’t teach maths at high school.

Use 7: Narrations, Instructions or commentaries

The Present Simple is also used in narrations (e.g. to tell a story or a joke), instructions (e.g. cooking) or commentaries (especially sport commentaries).
„A man goes to visit a friend and is amazed to find him playing chess with his dog. He watches the game in astonishment for a while […]“

Present Continuous
Basic form
Subject + IS/ARE + Verb (continuous form)

Examples

He is sleeping.
I am visiting grandpa in the afternoon.
You are always coming late for the meetings!

The Present Continuous is mainly used to express the idea that something is happening at the moment of speaking. The Present Continuous also describes activities generally in progress (not at the moment). Another use of the tense is to talk about temporary actions or future plans.

Use

Present actions
Temporary actions
Longer actions in progress
Future (personal) arrangements and plans
Tendencies and trends
Irritation

Use 1: Present Actions

Most often, we use the Present Continuous tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking.
He is eating a dinner.
Mary is talking with her friends.
They are swimming in the pool.

Use 2: Temporary Actions

This tense is also used for activities continuing only for a limited period of time.
I’m riding a bike to get to work because my car is broken. Temporary Action (His car will soon be repaired)
They are not talking with each other after the last argument. Temporary Action (They will soon make up)
Mary is working at McDonald’s. Temporary Action (She is working there only during the summer holidays)

Use 3: Longer Actions in Progress

We also use the Present Continuous when we are in the middle of doing something time-consuming (i.e. something that takes time to complete). An example of such an activity is writing a book, saving money or studying for an exam.
They are working hard to earn money.
I am training to become a professional footballer.
Mike is studying hard to become a doctor.
Elizabeth is currently writing a children’s book titled I am the World.

Use 4: Future (Personal) Arrangements and Plans

Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to show that something is planned and will be done in the near future.
I’m meeting Katie in the evening.
He’s flying to Rome in September.
We’re not going anywhere tomorrow.

Use 5: Tendencies and Trends

This tense is also used for expressing tendencies or trends.
Our country is getting richer.
The Internet is becoming less of a novelty.
The Universe is expanding.

Use 6: Irritation or Anger

And the last use of this tense is to express irritation or anger over somebody or something in the present with adverbs such as: always, continually or contantly.
She is continually complaining about everything!
Johny is always asking stupid questions!
My boss is contantly critising me!

Present Perfect
Basic form
Subject + HAS/HAVE + Verb (past participle form)

Examples

I have read this book.
The man has gone away.
John has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.

The Present Perfect is used to express actions that happened at anindefinite time or that began in the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the present moment.

Use

Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now
Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment
Actions which began in the past and continue in the present

Use 1: Indefinite time before now

Use the Present Perfect to talk about actions that happened at some point in the past. It does not matter when exactly they happened.
I have already had a breakfast.
He has been to England.
Remember
You should not use this tense with time expressions like yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc.

Use 2: Effect on the present moment

We also use this tense to when an activity has an effect on the present moment.
He has finished his work. (so he can now rest)
I have already eaten the dinner. (so I’m not hungry)
He has had a car accident. (that’s why he is in the hospital)

Use 3: Continuation in the present

We often use the Present Perfect when we want to emphasize that an event continues in the present.
Mary has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
Patrick has achieved a lot in his life.

For and Since
Since and For are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect.
We use For with a period of time, for example:
I have lived here for 20 years.
When talking about a starting point, we use Since, for example:
I have lived here since 1960.

Present Perfect Continuous
Basic form
Subject + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + Verb (continuous form)

Examples

I have been working as a teacher for 30 years.
What have you been doing?

The Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) has a long and scary name. But don’t worry! Read on to learn how to use it.
Use

Actions that started in the past and continue in the present
Actions that have recently stopped
Temporary actions and situations

Use 1: Continuation in the Present

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continues in the present.
He has been painting the house for 5 hours. He’s still painting it
I have been working as a fireman since 1973. I still work as a fireman

Use 2: Past actions recently stopped

Use this tense also to talk about actions that began in the past and have recently stopped.
I have been waiting for you for half an hour! I’m not waiting anymore because you have come
Look at her eyes! I’m sure she has been crying. She stopped crying when she saw them

For and Since
Since and for are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
We use for with a period of time, for example:
I have been living here for 20 years.
When talking about a starting point, we use since, for example:
I have been living here since 1960.

Use 3: Temporary Actions and Situations

We use this tense when an action or situation is temporary.
I have been living in Boston for two months.
I have been working as a waitress for the past week.

Tenses

1. Positive Sentences
To speak (irregular)
Present Tense: He speaks Spanish.
Present Progressive: He is speaking Spanish.
Past Tense: He spoke Spanish.
Past Progressive: He was speaking Spanish.
Present Perfect: He has spoken Spanish.
Future Tense: He will speak Spanish.

To play
Present Tense: She tennis.

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

To do
Present Tense: They the dishes

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

To write

Present Tense: I a book.

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

2. Negative Sentences
Present Tense: He does not speak Spanish.
Present Progressive: He is not speaking Spanish.
Past Tense: He did not speak Spanish.
Past Progressive: He was not speaking Spanish.
Present Perfect: He has not spoken Spanish.
Future Tense: He will not speak Spanish.

To make

Present Tense: We the beds.

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

To go

Present Tense: You to school.

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

To stay

Present Tense: Matt at home.

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

3. Interrogative Sentences
Present Tense: Does he speak Spanish?
Present Progressive: Is he speaking Spanish?
Past Tense: Did he speak Spanish?
Past Progressive: Was he speaking Spanish?
Present Perfect: Has he spoken Spanish?
Future Tense: Will he speak Spanish?

To watch

Present Tense: you TV?

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

To buy

Present Tense: he a pencil?

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

To call
Present Tense: John his mother?

Present Progressive:

Past Tense:

Past Progressive:

Present Perfect:

Future Tense:

Mixed-Tenses