Notting Hill Carnival

 

Notting Hill is a district in North-west London. It is the place of the annual Notting Hill Carnival. It is Europe’s biggest street party and the second biggest carnival in the world.

It began in the ’60s when only a few hundred people came. It grew bigger every year and two million people came this year. The weather was nice and everybody had a good time.

There were also 9,000 police officers who kept the people safe. One policewoman explained that they were trying a face recognition technology there. It would identify people who should not be at the carnival.

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Answer the questions:

  • What is this text about ?
  • Where is it ?
  • Is this carnival very famous and important ?
  • When did it begin ?
  • How many people came this year ?
  • What was the weather like ?
  • How many officers were there ?
  • What was their role ?
  • What new method did they use to identify people who should not be there?

 

Oktoberfest

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Oktoberfest is a festival from the south of Germany, in Bavaria. Although it is called Oktoberfest, it usually starts in September but ends in October. The festival started in 1810 when the citizens of Munich (a city in Bavaria) were invited to celebrate the marriage of Prince Ludwig and Princess Therese. The festival was a huge success and has been celebrated every year since then.

Nowadays, people drink beer and eat snacks in big halls. Some local people wear the traditional Bavarian clothes when they celebrate Oktoberfest.

Unscramble the words and find the hidden word:

iserspcn _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
eebr _ _ _ _
aariabv _ _ _ _ _ _ _
himunc _ _ _ _ _ _
kacsns _ _ _ _ _ _
roecotb _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Answer: _ _ _ _ _ _

 

WORDSEARCH

Find the words in the word search: 

(   ) Sausage (   ) Reichstag (   ) Albert Einstein (   ) Oktoberfest
(   ) Mercedes (   ) Berlin Wall (   ) Brandenburg Gate (   ) Otto von Bismarck
(   ) BMW (   ) Beethoven (   ) Neuschwanstein (   ) Adidas

 

K C R A M S I B N O V O T T O N S B
H A V J E W X I R E V K G J V E A E
A L B E R T E I N S T E I N C V U R
N I E T S N A W H C S U E N I O S L
O K T O B E R F E S T W Z T F H A I
G A T S H C I E R P T Z M X O T G N
M E R C E D E S W R C N K B C E E W
F B R A N D E N B U R G G A T E M A
S A D I D A C M U O M X A M A B N L
V P R Y O S S Z O Q T L M N O A Z L

 

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare, often called the English national poet, is widely considered the greatest dramatist of all time. He was baptized on April 26, 1564, in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. From roughly 1594 onward he was an important member of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men company of theatrical players. Written records give little indication of the way in which Shakespeare’s professional life molded his artistry. All that can be deduced is that over the course of 20 years, Shakespeare wrote plays that capture the complete range of human emotion and conflict.

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Early Life

Though no birth records exist, church records indicate that a William Shakespeare was baptized at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon on April 26, 1564. From this, it is believed he was born on or near April 23, 1564, and this is the date scholars acknowledge as William Shakespeare’s birthday.

Located 103 miles west of London, during Shakespeare’s time Stratford-upon-Avon was a market town bisected with a country road and the River Avon. William was the third child of John Shakespeare, a leather merchant, and Mary Arden, a local landed heiress. William had two older sisters, Joan and Judith, and three younger brothers, Gilbert, Richard and Edmund. Before William’s birth, his father became a successful merchant and held official positions as alderman and bailiff, an office resembling a mayor. However, records indicate John’s fortunes declined sometime in the late 1570s.

Scant records exist of William’s childhood, and virtually none regarding his education. Scholars have surmised that he most likely attended the King’s New School, in Stratford, which taught reading, writing and the classics. Being a public official’s child, William would have undoubtedly qualified for free tuition. But this uncertainty regarding his education has led some to raise questions about the authorship of his work and even about whether or not William Shakespeare ever existed.

Married Life

William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway on November 28, 1582, in Worcester, in Canterbury Province. Hathaway was from Shottery, a small village a mile west of Stratford. William was 18 and Anne was 26, and, as it turns out, pregnant. Their first child, a daughter they named Susanna, was born on May 26, 1583. Two years later, on February 2, 1585, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. Hamnet later died of unknown causes at age 11.

After the birth of the twins, there are seven years of William Shakespeare’s life where no records exist. Scholars call this period the „lost years,“ and there is wide speculation on what he was doing during this period. One theory is that he might have gone into hiding for poaching game from the local landlord, Sir Thomas Lucy. Another possibility is that he might have been working as an assistant schoolmaster in Lancashire. It is generally believed he arrived in London in the mid- to late 1580s and may have found work as a horse attendant at some of London’s finer theaters, a scenario updated centuries later by the countless aspiring actors and playwrights in Hollywood and Broadway.

Theatrical Beginnings

By 1592, there is evidence William Shakespeare earned a living as an actor and a playwright in London and possibly had several plays produced. The September 20, 1592 edition of the Stationers’ Register (a guild publication) includes an article by London playwright Robert Greene that takes a few jabs at William Shakespeare: „…There is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger’s heart wrapped in a Player’s hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country,“ Greene wrote of Shakespeare.

Scholars differ on the interpretation of this criticism, but most agree that it was Greene’s way of saying Shakespeare was reaching above his rank, trying to match better known and educated playwrights like Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe or Greene himself.

By the early 1590s, documents show William Shakespeare was a managing partner in the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, an acting company in London. After the crowning of King James I, in 1603, the company changed its name to the King’s Men. From all accounts, the King’s Men company was very popular, and records show that Shakespeare had works published and sold as popular literature. The theater culture in 16th century England was not highly admired by people of high rank. However, many of the nobility were good patrons of the performing arts and friends of the actors. Early in his career, Shakespeare was able to attract the attention of Henry Wriothesley, the Earl of Southampton, to whom he dedicated his first- and second-published poems: „Venus and Adonis“ (1593) and „The Rape of Lucrece“ (1594).

Establishing Himself

By 1597, 15 of the 37 plays written by William Shakespeare were published. Civil records show that at this time he purchased the second largest house in Stratford, called New House, for his family. It was a four-day ride by horse from Stratford to London, so it is believed that Shakespeare spent most of his time in the city writing and acting and came home once a year during the 40-day Lenten period, when the theaters were closed.

By 1599, William Shakespeare and his business partners built their own theater on the south bank of the Thames River, which they called the Globe. In 1605, Shakespeare purchased leases of real estate near Stratford for 440 pounds, which doubled in value and earned him 60 pounds a year. This made him an entrepreneur as well as an artist, and scholars believe these investments gave him the time to write his plays uninterrupted.

Writing Style

William Shakespeare’s early plays were written in the conventional style of the day, with elaborate metaphors and rhetorical phrases that didn’t always align naturally with the story’s plot or characters. However, Shakespeare was very innovative, adapting the traditional style to his own purposes and creating a freer flow of words. With only small degrees of variation, Shakespeare primarily used a metrical pattern consisting of lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter, or blank verse, to compose his plays. At the same time, there are passages in all the plays that deviate from this and use forms of poetry or simple prose.

Early Works: Histories and Comedies

With the exception of Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare’s first plays were mostly histories written in the early 1590s. Richard II, Henry VI (parts 1, 2 and 3) and Henry V dramatize the destructive results of weak or corrupt rulers, and have been interpreted by drama historians as Shakespeare’s way of justifying the origins of the Tudor Dynasty.

Shakespeare also wrote several comedies during his early period: the witty romance A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the romantic Merchant of Venice, the wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing, the charming As You Like Itand Twelfth Night. Other plays, possibly written before 1600, include Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

Later Works: Tragedies and Tragicomedies

It was in William Shakespeare’s later period, after 1600, that he wrote the tragedies Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth. In these, Shakespeare’s characters present vivid impressions of human temperament that are timeless and universal. Possibly the best known of these plays is Hamlet, which explores betrayal, retribution, incest and moral failure. These moral failures often drive the twists and turns of Shakespeare’s plots, destroying the hero and those he loves.

In William Shakespeare’s final period, he wrote several tragicomedies. Among these are Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest. Though graver in tone than the comedies, they are not the dark tragedies of King Lear or Macbeth because they end with reconciliation and forgiveness.

Death

Tradition has it that William Shakespeare died on his birthday, April 23, 1616, though many scholars believe this is a myth. Church records show he was interred at Trinity Church on April 25, 1616.

In his will, he left the bulk of his possessions to his eldest daughter, Susanna. Though entitled to a third of his estate, little seems to have gone to his wife, Anne, whom he bequeathed his „second-best bed.“ This has drawn speculation that she had fallen out of favor, or that the couple was not close. However, there is very little evidence the two had a difficult marriage. Other scholars note that the term „second-best bed“ often refers to the bed belonging to the household’s master and mistres—the marital bed—and the „first-best bed“ was reserved for guests.

Earth Day

Earth Day Facts

On April 22nd each year, there are celebrations held in more than192 countries around the world for Earth Day. Earth Day is meant to show support for protecting the environment. A UNESCO Conference held in 1969 suggested choosing March 21st 1970 as the first Earth Day. The United States chose to celebrate a separate Earth Day on April 22nd each year. This date became the internationally recognized Earth Day in 1990. There are also many communities that support environmental issues by celebrating Earth Week.
Interesting Earth Day Facts:
The first Earth Day in the U.S. was celebrated on April 22, 1970.
Earth Day Network is the global coordinator for Earth Day.
Senator Gaylord Nelson founded Earth Day in the United States. In recognition of his hard work, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom Award.
Denis Hayes took Earth Day international in 1990. Today he says that it is the largest secular holiday in the world, one that is celebrated by more than one billion people worldwide.
The first Earth Day celebration in the U.S. resulted in 20 million Americans participating in peaceful demonstrations to show their support for environmental reform.
On the first Day in the U.S., 2,000 colleges and universities participated, along with 10,000 primary and secondary schools.
On the first Earth Day in New York City, the mayor shut down Fifth Avenue for use on Earth Day  and allowed it to be celebrated in Central Park.
Popular activities that people participate in on Earth Day include planting trees, collecting garbage, cleaning up the coral reefs, signing petitions, and planning for a better environment and better planet.
In 2009, the United Nations renamed Earth Day as International Mother Earth Day.
Some communities and schools choose to celebrate Earth Week, allowing for more time to make the earth the focus of teaching and study.
More than 100 thousand people in China rode their bikes on Earth Day 2012. They did this to save fuel and to reduce the CO2 emissions from vehicles.
In Afghanistan in 2011, the Earth Day Network planted 28 million trees on Earth Day.
In Panama, in honor of Earth Day, they planted 100 species of endangered orchids to prevent their extinction.
Earth Day is important to help raise awareness of the impact we have on the environment and what can be done about it. Some of the stats that are used to get the point of going green across include: Recycling one aluminum can save enough energy to watch 3 hours of TV. It takes less energy (90% less) to recycle aluminum cans than to manufacture new ones. The average person tosses out about 4 pounds of garbage every day. The average person uses about 12 thousand gallons of water each year. Only 27% of newspapers in the U.S. are recycled. If they were all recycled it would save one-quarter of a billion trees EVERY YEAR. Every year there are 14,000,000,000 pounds of garbage thrown into the oceans. The plastic garbage kills at least 1 million creatures in the ocean each year.
More than 1 billion people were celebrating Earth Day by 2010, which was Earth Day’s 40th anniversary. More than 180 countries celebrated, and Facebook has become a popular tool to spread the word.

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Unsolved Mysteries

Popular interest in the Loch Ness monster began in the 1930s with the publication of the now world-famous photograph taken by Robert Wilson. Since early reports of a ‘huge creature with two black humps’, there have been dozens of sightings, including one of ‘a strange creature running across the road with a sheep in its mouth’. The search for ‘Nessie’ is very serious business. Scientific research teams regularly visit the loch and millions of pounds have been spent in an attempt to be the first to prove the existence of the elusive beast.

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One summer in the early 1980s, strange patterns like the one in the photo appeared overnight in cornfields across southern England. Observers were astounded by the regular geometry, beauty and size of the designs with some as big as 50 metres across. The area immediately surrounding the circles was not disturbed at all. Such circles have since been seen all over the world.

In November 1872, the Marie Celeste, an American sailing ship carrying crude alcohol, set out to cross the Atlantic, bound for Italy. Three weeks later, a British ship found the Marie Celeste 650 kilometres from land with not a single person on board. Blood was found on the deck and on the captain’s sword. There were two large grooves scratched into the ship’s side. Meals were left half-eaten and the captain’s daily log stopped mid-sentence. All the ship’s fresh water, food and clothing had been left on board, but a few documents were missing. Only one small lifeboat had been taken.

On 25 July 1976, the Viking 1 space probe was taking photographs of the surface of Mars. One of the photographs beamed back to Earth revealed a giant face one-and-a-half kilometres across. It is believed by many that this is proof that there was once life on Mars and that the face was left as a signal to anyone visiting the planet.

The Bermuda Triangle is a mythical section of the Atlantic Ocean roughly bounded by Miami, Bermuda and Puerto Rico where dozens of ships and airplanes have disappeared. Unexplained circumstances surround some of these accidents, including one in which the pilots of a squadron of U.S. Navy bombers became disoriented while flying over the area; the planes were never found. Other boats and planes have seemingly vanished from the area in good weather without even radioing distress messages. But although myriad fanciful theories have been proposed regarding the Bermuda Triangle, none of them prove that mysterious disappearances occur more frequently there than in other well-traveled sections of the ocean. In fact, people navigate the area every day without incident.

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Do you know of any other unsolved mysteries?

BROKEN WRIST – Reading comprehension

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  1. Reading

Yolanda was walking up some stairs at work when she tripped and fell. She put her right hand out as she started falling and broke her wrist. A co-worker drove her to the emergency room of a nearby hospital. An x-ray technician took x-rays of her wrist. When the x-rays came back, they showed that her wrist was broken. Now, Yolanda is waiting to see a doctor. The doctor will have an assistant put a cast on her arm. Yolanda hopes the doctor will give her a prescription for pain medication. Every time she moves it feels awful.

2.True or False

  1. ________ Yolanda was injured at work.
  2. ________ A co-worker drove Yolanda to the hospital.
  3. ________ Yolanda’s left wrist is broken.
  4. ________ X-ray technicians take x-rays.
  5. ________ The hospital has an emergency room.

3. Yes or No – Share Your Opinion

  1. ________ Yolanda will feel less pain when the cast is on her arm.
  2. ________ Patients should avoid taking pain medication.

4. Writing – Did you ever break a bone? Did you have a cast?

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